Why Is Blue So Rare In Nature?
Why Is Blue So Rare In Nature?
Why Is Blue So Rare In Nature?
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Why Is Blue So Rare In Nature? - It's Okay To Be Smart

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Joe Hanson, Ph.D. is a curious group of atoms in a curious universe, and he's here to tell you how it all works. Subscribe for new science videos every week! Have ideas or questions? Find me on Twitter: @okaytobesmart or @DrJoeHanson

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The Invention Of Blue

Curiosity Box: https://www.curiositybox.com/ Written, Produced, Edited and Hosted by Kevin Lieber Instagram: http://instagram.com/kevlieber Twitter: https://twitter.com/kevleeb Website: http://kevinlieber.com Contributing Researcher & Editor Matthew Tabor, Koala Fight Media http://koala.fm/ VFX by Eric Langlay https://www.youtube.com/c/ericlanglay Select Music by Jake Chudnow https://www.youtube.com/user/jakechudnow Special Thanks Paula Lieber https://twitter.com/pixichuu Vsauce2 Links Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/VsauceTwo Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/VsauceTwo Website: http://www.Vsauce.com **** LINKS AND SOURCES **** BOOKS The Brilliant History of Color in Art by Victoria Finlay https://www.amazon.com/Brilliant-History-Color-Art/dp/1606064290/ Blue: The History Of A Color by Michel Pastoureau https://www.amazon.com/Blue-History-Color-Michel-Pastoureau/dp/0691090505/ Secret Language Of Color by Joann Eckstut and Arielle Eckstut https://www.amazon.com/Secret-Language-Color-Science-History/dp/1579129498/ SPECIAL THANKS Virginia Postrel https://vpostrel.com/ https://www.amazon.com/Substance-Style-Aesthetic-Remaking-Consciousness/dp/0060933852/ Victoria Finlay https://victoriafinlay.com/ Joshua J. Mark http://www.ancient.eu/user/JPryst/ Kidmograph http://www.kidmograph.com/ https://www.instagram.com/kidmograph/ Outro Song “I Came Back For You” by Trevor Something https://trevorsomething.bandcamp.com/album/soulless-computer-boy-and-the-eternal-render ARTICLES Pigments Through The Ages https://goo.gl/ytfGV3 https://goo.gl/D6nwMs Color In Art https://goo.gl/4Bu7pD Harvard Color Vault https://goo.gl/Q86ixm https://goo.gl/Y43xCb Little Snow White https://goo.gl/Lsm8Xt A Story Of Blue https://goo.gl/4GsVFB The Material History of the Color...

Are We All Related?

This is part 3 of our special series on Human Ancestry! Watch the entire series here ►► http://bit.ly/OKTBSHuman ↓↓↓More info and sources below ↓↓↓ In part 3 of our special series on human ancestry, we investigate how closely related we all really are. Basic math tells us that all humans share ancestors. But you’ll be amazed at how recently those shared ancestors lived. Thanks to genetic data in the 21st century, we’re even discovering that we really are all descended from one mother. ----------- REFERENCES: Chang, Joseph T. "Recent common ancestors of all present-day individuals." Advances in Applied Probability 31.04 (1999): 1002-1026. Jorde, Lynn...

10 Things Americans Do That Confuse The Rest Of The World!

Top things Americans do that confuse everyone else! These are the confusing and weird customs of americans and things americans do that confuse the rest of the world! #5. “Hollywood Smile”-- Another place that foreigners think Americans are wasting water is at the Dentist’s office. While dental hygiene in other countries may not be as bad as it is stereotyped to be, like in England, they aren’t quite as obsessed with attaining or maintaining the perfect smile in the way that Americans have. Where Americans have been known to spend thousands of dollars on braces and whitening procedures in order to...

Have You Experienced The Mandela Effect?

Have you experienced the bizarre Mandela Effect? Here's the REAL reason why it happens... SUBSCRIBE - New Vids Every Thurs: http://bit.ly/thoughty2 PLAY Dot World on Android: http://bit.ly/dotworldandroid Support me on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/thoughty2 Check Out My Second Channel: http://bit.ly/FreshGrwnd Support me on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/thoughty2 Thoughty2 Facebook: http://bit.ly/thoughtyfb Thoughty2 Instagram: http://bit.ly/t2insta Thoughty2 Merchandise: http://thoughty2.spreadshirt.com With Special Thanks To: Misha A-Wilson, Katrina Brogan, Michelle & Aaron Finn, Jeff Lee, Kent Zacherl, Steve Bradshaw, Lisa Pimlett, Matthew Russell, Saverius, Peter Hartman, Jacob Solomon, Eirenliel Allier, Omar Albastaki, aclyn P Ray, Elemeniah

The Sixth Extinction

This time, we're the asteroid Subscribe to It's Okay To Be Smart: http://bit.ly/iotbs_sub ↓ More info and sources below ↓ Follow on Twitter: http://twitter.com/DrJoeHanson Follow on Instagram: http://instagram.com/drjoehanson Read "The Sixth Extinction by Elizabeth Kolbert: http://amzn.to/1xGKn0K Rodolfo Dirzo et al. "Defaunation in the Anthropocene" http://bit.ly/1H7JQdw Stuart Pimm et al. "Biodiversity of Species and Their Rates of Extinction" http://bit.ly/1A5UZJM Get to know an endangered species: http://discover.iucnredlist.org/ Half of world's wildlife has died off in past 40 years: http://bit.ly/1BHl8jR Have an idea for an episode or an amazing science question you want answered? Leave a comment below! ----------------- It's Okay To Be Smart is written and hosted...

Top 10 Things That Originally Looked Totally Different

The world is changing faster than ever before thanks to the power of technology. A lot of perfectly normal everyday things used to look way different than the versions that you and I are familiar with. Here are the Top 10 Things You Didn't Know Looked Totally Different! Subscribe for more! ► http://bit.ly/BeAmazedSubscribe ◄ Stay updated ► http://bit.ly/BeAmazedFacebook https://twitter.com/BeAmazedVideos https://instagram.com/BeAmazedVideos ◄ For copyright queries or general inquiries please get in touch: beamazedvideos@gmail.com Be Amazed at these Top 10 Things You Didn't Know Looked Totally Different! Chickens - People have been messing around with chickens in order to make them produce more of their...

Why Do Vicious Killers Make Good Pets?

Cats are considered an invasive species and kill literally billions of birds and small mammals each year. But they're so cute and cuddly! Could there be some sort of connection between their predatory nature and their lovableness? ►Support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/thegoodstuff ►Our Sci-Fi Show: http://kck.st/2f8n2mP ►Subscribe: http://youtube.com/thegoodstuff ►Follow us on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/goodstuffshow ►Like us on facebook: http://www.facebook.com/thegoodstuffshow Image Credits https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Canis_lupus_pack_surrounding_Bison.jpg By Doug Smith [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons Canis_lupus_pack_surrounding_Bison Funny Cat Fails Compilation REACTION!!!.mp4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0nPNvJzC4JY 1-month-old_kitten_35.jpg https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1-month-old_kitten_35.jpg By 0x010C (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons 1-month-old_kitten_36 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1-month-old_kitten_36.jpg By 0x010C (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons Golden_tabby_and_white_kitten_n02 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Golden_tabby_and_white_kitten_n02.jpg Pet owners image C-rGFGpXUAAdfJj Two_orange_tabby_cats_greeting_by_rubbing https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Two_orange_tabby_cats_greeting_by_rubbing-Hisashi-01.jpg By Hisashi from Japan (D02_0005 Uploaded by Caspian blue) [CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)],...

Why Alien Life Would be our Doom - The Great Filter

The first 688 people to use this link will get 20% off their annual membership: http://brilliant.org/nutshell Thanks a lot to Brilliant for supporting this channel. Finding alien life on a distant planet would be amazing news - or would it? If we are not the only intelligent life in the universe, this probably means our days are numbered and doom is certain. Kurzgesagt Newsletter: http://eepurl.com/cRUQxz Support us on Patreon so we can make more videos (and get cool stuff in return): https://www.patreon.com/Kurzgesagt?ty=h Kurzgesagt merch: http://bit.ly/1P1hQIH The MUSIC of the video: Soundcloud: http://bit.ly/2rVtfvh Bandcamp: http://bit.ly/2DTeVc9 Facebook: http://bit.ly/2qW6bY4 THANKS A LOT TO OUR LOVELY PATRONS FOR SUPPORTING US: Jacob Palmer,...

Why graphene hasn’t taken over the world...yet

Graphene is a form of carbon that could bring us bulletproof armor and space elevators, improve medicine, and make the internet run faster — some day. For the past 15 years, consumers have been hearing about this wonder material and all the ways it could change everything. Is it really almost here, or is it another promise that is perpetually just one more breakthrough away? Subscribe: http://bit.ly/2FqJZMl Like Verge Science on Facebook: http://bit.ly/2hoSukO Follow on Twitter: http://bit.ly/2Kr29B9 Follow on Instagram: https://goo.gl/7ZeLvX Read More: http://www.theverge.com Community guidelines: http://bit.ly/2D0hlAv Subscribe to Verge on YouTube for explainers, product reviews, technology news, and more: http://goo.gl/G5RXGs

Is Your Brain Too Old For Video Games?

Get your #ididascience shirt here! http://dftba.com/besmart ↓ More info and sources below ↓ Vintage arcade footage courtesy of: http://patrickscottpatterson.com/ Special thanks to Dreamhack Austin 2016: http://dreamhackaustin.com/ Thank you to our commentators: @Totalbiscuit https://www.youtube.com/cynicalbrit @EGiNcontroL https://www.facebook.com/GeoffRobinsoniNcontroL References: Thompson, Joseph J., Mark R. Blair, and Andrew J. Henrey. "Over the hill at 24: persistent age-related cognitive-motor decline in reaction times in an ecologically valid video game task begins in early adulthood." PloS one 9.4 (2014): e94215. Thompson, Joseph J., et al. "Video game telemetry as a critical tool in the study of complex skill learning." PloS one 8.9 (2013): e75129. Lewis, Joshua M., Patrick Trinh, and...

Why Are We The Only Humans Left?

Try 23andMe at: http://www.23andme.com/okay Part 2 of our special series on Human Ancestry. Watch it all: http://bit.ly/OKTBSHuman ↓↓↓More info and sources below ↓↓↓ In part 2 of our special series on human ancestry, we ask why we are the only surviving branch on the human evolutionary tree. Just 50,000-100,000 years ago, Earth was home to three or four separate human species, including our most famous cousins: the Neanderthals. New research has shown that Neanderthals were not the brutish, unintelligent cavemen that cartoons make them out to be. They were creative, smart, social, and perhaps even had complex language. So why...

The Surprising Reason We Eat Spicy Food

Check out Nourish from PBS! https://www.youtube.com/PBSNourish SUBSCRIBE to It's Okay To Be Smart! ►► http://bit.ly/iotbs_sub ↓↓↓ More info and sources below ↓↓↓ People who live near the equator use more spices per recipe than people who live far from the equator. But that isn't for the reason you think. Spices and other plant ingredients have special powers that make them a truly magical superfood! REFERENCES: Billing, J., & Sherman, P. W. (1998). Antimicrobial functions of spices: why some like it hot. The Quarterly review of biology, 73(1), 3-49. Juneja, V. K., Dwivedi, H. P., & Yan, X. (2012). Novel natural food antimicrobials. Annual review of food...

20 MILLION Year-Old Spider and the Science of Spider Silk

Check it out: BrainCraft visits another MacArthur Genius! https://youtu.be/ewPeAFQWg3s Don't miss our next video! SUBSCRIBE! ►► http://bit.ly/iotbs_sub ↓↓↓ More info and sources below ↓↓↓ Living things have engineered some pretty awesome materials, but I'm not sure anything measures up to spider silk. It's as strong, as stretchy, and as resilient than even humans' most advanced creations like Kevlar and steel. So how do these awesome arachnids weave such an incredible substance using nothing but their rear ends? And… what IS this stuff? I went to meet Dr. Cheryl Hayashi, one of the world's experts in spider silk, to find out. Special thanks...

Why Do More Species Live Near the Equator?

Go to http://Raceforretirement.com and see how the action gap affects you. Follow all of our Peru adventures on this playlist: http://bit.ly/SmartPeru ↓ More info and sources below ↓ Special thanks to Rainforest Expeditions for hosting us! Visit http://www.perunature.com/ References: Wilson, E.O. "The Diversity of Life" http://eowilsonfoundation.org/the-diversity-of-life/ Eichhorn, Markus P. "Latitudinal gradients." Natural Systems: The organisation of life: 249-264. "Tropical Ecology" (textbook) by John Kircher (2011) http://press.princeton.edu/titles/9486.html Condamine, Fabien L., et al. "What causes latitudinal gradients in species diversity? Evolutionary processes and ecological constraints on swallowtail biodiversity." Ecology letters 15.3 (2012): 267-277. Jenkins, Clinton N., Stuart L. Pimm, and Lucas N. Joppa. "Global patterns of terrestrial...

19 Extinct Species Found ALIVE !

From bizarre flightless birds, to some ancient turtles, these are 19 EXTINCT Species Found ALIVE !!! 10. Lord Howe Island Stick Insect -- It’s considered the rarest insect in the world, and they were thought to be extinct since 1920. It was rediscovered in 2001 on a small islet of Ball’s Pyramid. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it’s the tallest and most isolated sea stack in the world. Less than 30 individuals were located living underneath a single shrub there. Did you know this Stick Insect can grow to 15 centimeters long? That’s why they’re sometimes referred...

Why Nature Loves Hexagons (featuring Infinite Series!)

Follow me to Infinite Series for 4-Dimensional Bees! https://youtu.be/X8jOxEGVyPo Don’t miss our next video! SUBSCRIBE! ►► http://bit.ly/iotbs_sub ↓↓↓ More info and sources below ↓↓↓ From spirals to spots to fractals, nature is full of interesting patterns. Many of these patterns even resemble geometric shapes. One of the most common? Hexagons. Why do we see this six-sided shape occur so many times in nature? This week we explore why hexagons are so common in the natural world, from honeycomb to bubbles to rocks, and what their mathematics, physics, and biology may have in common. ----------- READ MORE: D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson. (1917) “On...

There Was No First Human

No, YOUR grandfather was a fish Don’t miss our next video! SUBSCRIBE! ►► http://bit.ly/iotbs_sub ↓↓↓ More info and sources below ↓↓↓ If you traced your family tree back 185 million generations through evolution, you wouldn't be looking at a human, a primate, or even a mammal. You'd be looking at a fish. So where along that line does the first human show up? The answer may surprise you Inspired by Richard Dawkins' "The Magic of Reality" http://amzn.to/1eFPE0v Also check out Richard Dawkins' "The Ancestor's Tale" http://amzn.to/1fbf17e Images of prehistoric species used in this episode: Tiktaalik, Procunsul, Plesiadapsis, Juramaia, Hylonomus - by Nobu...

How Some Words Get Forgetted

It’s the Great American Read! Vote for America's favorite novel: https://to.pbs.org/2Jes2X5 ↓↓↓ More info and sources below ↓↓↓ English is a confusing language for many reasons. But the irregular verbs might be the most confusing part. Why is “told” the past tense of “tell” but “smold” isn’t the past tense of “smell”? It turns out that the study of irregular verbs can teach us a lot about how languages evolve. This week, we look at how the era of Big Data is unlocking secrets behind the weirdness of words. OTHER VIDEOS TO CHECK OUT: “The Zipf Mystery” - Vsauce https://youtu.be/fCn8zs912OE “Trending Artists of...

A Brief History of Fat, and Why We Hate It

Fat is a complex organ, as essential as the heart or liver. Why do we hate it? Produced by the Science Communication Lab.

What Was the Ancestor of Everything? (feat. PBS Space Time and It’s Okay To Be Smart)

Check out It’s Okay To Be Smart’s video for more about the origins of life on earth: https://youtu.be/_uAJY1mqtw4 And check out PBS Space Time’s video on the physics of life: https://youtu.be/GcfLZSL7YGw The search for our origins go back to a single common ancestor -- one that remains shrouded in mystery. It’s the ancestor of everything we know and today scientists call it the last universal common ancestor, or LUCA. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios http://youtube.com/itsokaytobesmart https://www.youtube.com/pbsspacetime Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - https://twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: https://www.nature.com/articles/nmicrobiol2016116 https://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/26/science/last-universal-ancestor.html https://astrobiology.nasa.gov/news/looking-for-luca-the-last-universal-common-ancestor/ http://microbialcell.com/researcharticles/physiology-phylogeny-and-luca/ http://www.actionbioscience.org/evolution/poolepaper.html http://we.vub.ac.be/~dglg/Web/Teaching/Les/Discussions/Pre-biotic/Moreira-LUCA.pdf http://www.mdpi.com/2075-1729/7/2/27/htm https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11084-017-9542-5 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4008548/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4176008/ https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/international-journal-of-astrobiology/article/buds-of-the-tree-the-highway-to-the-last-universal-common-ancestor/ED26AA7787BA5A152090913CC7C20067 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15035042 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21740227 https://biologydirect.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1745-6150-8-32 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0923250805002676 https://www.saylor.org/content/BIO_Kimball/users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/G/GenomeSizes.html

Why Do We Cook?

Your brain is hungry. Here's how to feed it SUBSCRIBE, it's FREE! http://bit.ly/iotbs_sub ↓ More below ↓ Ever wonder why we cook our food? We do it because it tastes good, of course, and because our customs and traditions are built around it. But we also cook our food for some basic biological reasons, because of evolution. Some scientists think that figuring out how to cook actually MADE us human! If conversation gets a little dry around your holiday table, now you'll have some awesome science to share with everyone! Richard Wrangham - "Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human" http://amzn.to/1cg5flN "The Raw...

How An Igloo Keeps You Warm

Building a perfect igloo takes cool science! Don’t miss the next video! SUBSCRIBE! ►► http://bit.ly/iotbs_sub ↓ More info and sources below ↓ If you ever find yourself stranded in the snowy Arctic (or bored in Minecraft), you’re gonna need to know how to build an igloo. But how can building a house made of ice keep you warm? The science behind building an igloo is the same reason that otters and reindeer don't freeze to death! LEARN MORE: There really ARE 50 Eskimo words for snow: http://wapo.st/2iwThf3 PBS Idea Channel - An Infinite Number of Words for Snow https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CX6i2M4AoZw Why there’s no such...

Why Are There As Many Males As Females?

Evolution doesn’t pick a side! Don’t miss our next video! SUBSCRIBE! ►► http://bit.ly/iotbs_sub ↓↓↓ More info and sources below ↓↓↓ In almost every animal species on Earth, equal numbers of males and females are conceived. Why is that? Especially in populations like lions or elephant seals, where most males don’t get to mate? That’s survival of the laziest, not survival of the fittest. It turns out that in most cases, an equal balance of the sexes is the evolutionary stable strategy. From Charles Darwin to Ronald Fisher to W.D. Hamilton to Richard Dawkins, the question of why there’s as many males...

Who Invented the Meter?

…or the metre Try CuriosityStream and learn something new today: http://curiositystream.com/smart ↓ More info and sources below ↓ Why is a meter a meter? The meter is the world’s ultimate measure, but how did it become “the” meter? What is this measurement based on? The story of this revolution in measurement traces its roots to the French Revolution. Scientists decided that an equal and united people should have equal and united measures. So they sent a pair of young astronomers out to measure the world, and invent the meter. Little did they know they’d find nothing but war, deception, and strife along the...

Only some humans can see this type of light

Polarized light is an unusual form of light. Can humans see when light is polarized? To learn more about Brilliant, go to https://brilliant.org/PhysicsGirl Subscribe to physics girl: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=physicswoman Check out the other YouTubers in this video! Léo Grasset (Dirty Biology) https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCtqICqGbPSbTN09K1_7VZ3Q William Osman https://www.youtube.com/WilliamOsman Allen Pan https://www.youtube.com/SufficientlyAdvanced CREDITS Creator: Dianna Cowern Editing: Jabril Ashe Animations: Kyle Norby Research: Sophia Chen Adviser: Dan Walsh Thanks to Kyle Kitzmiller and Bill Herrington! http://physicsgirl.org/ http://twitter.com/thephysicsgirl http://facebook.com/thephysicsgirl http://instagram.com/thephysicsgirl PO Box 9281 San Diego, CA 92169 More instructions for this project: https://www.exploratorium.edu/snacks/polarized-light-mosaic Resources: https://www.ptonline.com/articles/stress-diagnose-it-before-it-ruins-your-parts